Read online, download the PDF, or scan text below.


Author: Geoffrey Cobb

Publication Year: 2018

Journal Volume: 32

Article Reference: NYIHR-V32-02

Download PDF: Forgotten Legacies of Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly

Rights & Usage: Terms of Use

Forgotten Legacies of Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly

The following content was automatically extracted from the PDF file displayed above and is useful for online search. Due to inaccuaracies in OCR, the text may, in places, be jumbled or difficult to read. For an accurately readable version of article, we recommend consulting the PDF.

Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly was born in Ireland in 1862 and came to America as an eleven year-old. A graduate of Women's Me College in New York, she devoted much of her professional time providing medical care to the poor. However, she never lost interest in Ireland or in working for its independence. During the early twentieth century she won prominence through her work and leadership on behalf of suffragism, labor and social justice, and freedom for Ireland. Courtesy of New York Times.

Historical memory is both capricious and fickle. It often overlooks important figures whose achievements may be forgotten by subsequent generations. We often fail to appreciate historical figures as much as their contemporaries did. Such an overlooked, and now largely forgotten, figure in New York Irish history is Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly, awoman who not only became one of the first female surgeons in the United States, but also helped found many important Irish organizations and was instrumental in leading a female organized, vast anti-British strike on the New York waterfront that many claim was the first purely political strike in American history. Somehow, a woman who left these important legacies is today an obscure figure whom few recall. Why? POSSIBLE CAUSES Perhaps gender and gender roles are factors in this case of historical amnesia. Male revolutionaries grab spotlights, while the important contributions of females get little recognition.

Gertrude Kelly also did not fit the stereotypical role of an Irish Catholic woman. She never married or had children, but instead shared her life with her companion, Mary Walsh. Perhaps she was a lesbian, and anti-gay bias played a role in not recalling her important legacy. And in an Irish culture where religious faith played a huge role, Kelly was not only an atheist, but she also proudly described herself as an "unredeemed pagan." ("Gertrude B. Kelly" in Wikipedia) Did Irish Catholic historians make a conscious decision not to research her achievements because of her defiant atheism? Perhaps another factor in erasing Kelly's memory was her political views. In an Irish-American milieu, which revered loyalty to the Vol. 32, 2018 New York Irish History page 13 country and lauded the free-enterprise system, Kelly was an anti-government and anti-capitalist individualist anarchist who attacked the state and castigated its support of capitalism.

Although Dr. Kelly surely merits much historical research, there is still a pronounced paucity of studies of her life and work. At a time today when so many overlooked females are finally receiving long overdue attention, Kelly remains a scarcely investigated, poorly understood figure. Why don?t today?s historians write about this unique woman? Part of the answer stems from the scarcity of primary sources. She left few papers, but the real problem is more complex. Kelly?s poorly understood individualist anarchist worldview is radically different than the perspectives of many of her Irish female contemporaries. Consequently, many researchers do not know how to approach this unique figure. Kelly defies easy characterization and remains truly sui generis, making biographical work about her especially challenging.

Today, anarchism has largely been relegated to the dust bin of history, but in Kelly?s youth anarchism was an extremely popular ideology that seemed to offer an alternative to capitalist society. For Irish women like Kelly, it also offered a critique of the imperialism that was suffocating Ireland. I suspect that few historians working in the field of Irish-American studies are well versed in anarchist philosophy, another factor in perpetuating the lack of research on Dr. Kelly.

Making writing about Kelly even more demanding are the many seemingly contradictory views she held on political, economic, and social questions. In her article, ?Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly: A Forgotten Feminist,? Wendy McElroy summarizes the paradoxes in Dr. Kelly?s worldview that make her a complex, seemingly contradictory figure: A labor radical who was deeply skeptical of unions, a medical doctor who opposed state licensing of medicine, a staunch anti-statist who broke with the most prominent individualist anarchists of her day, an ardent feminist who denied that there were ?women?s rights? as distinct from ?human rights.? (McElroy, ?Gertrude B. Kelly?) Kelly?s seemingly paradoxical and contradictory juxtapositions come into focus, though, in the light of her Irish birth and anarchist beliefs. Individual anarchists, like Kelly, were a group of anti-authoritarian radicals who regarded total individual autonomy and free labor as the answer to the social and economic problems of the day. Kelly believed that overthrowing power structures and maximizing individual autonomy and responsibility would create a truly free society, which would evolve organically once society had liquidated the oppressive state. Because individualist anarchists regarded labor as the source of value and exchanges of unequal values to be exploitative, they may be regarded as a part of the broader socialist movement. Kelly?s views not only were highly uncommon and radical, but they also placed her in direct conflict with the establishment: the church, the state, and the capitalist order. shaping kelly?s perspectives In Kelly?s eyes, Ireland was victim of both capitalism and the British state. Although she left Ireland at age eleven, the experiences and opinions of her parents profoundly shaped Kelly?s perspectives She was born into a family of Irish nationalist educators in 1862 in Carrick-on-Suir, Co. Tipperary (Co. Waterford identifies Kelly as being born in the same year but in Ballyneale, across the border from Tipperary). Her father was a schoolmaster apparently forced out of his job for his Fenian sympathies. He left Ireland in 1868, five years before Gertrude would join him in New Jersey in 1873. He would become a high school principal, but he and the whole family remained passionately devoted to Irish affairs.

Her older brother, John, played a huge role in shaping her anarchist worldview. Kelly was one of twelve children, but little is known about any of her other siblings except for John who had a profound influence on her attitudes towards Ireland and anarchism. John graduat-Geoff Cobb is a teacher and author who writes about New York City history. His most recent book, The Rise and Fall of the Sugar King is a history of Williamsburg from 1844 to 1909. Geoff?s article on Thomas Hunter, the founder of Hunter College, appeared in vol. 31 of New York Irish History. He is the Roundtable?s vice president for local history. ?2019. Published with permission of Geoffrey Cobb. Vol. 32, 2018 PAGE 14 Liberty Vol. BOSTON, MASS., SATURDAY, AUGUST 6, 1881, No.: Photo: The bi-weekly newspaper, Liberty, was begun by Benjamin Tucker in 1881. Until 1908, it was a platform for discussion of anarchist philosophy and issues through its essays and articles. Gertrude Kelly was contributor to Liberty, and the quality of her articles won praise from Tucker. Courtesy of Wikipedia. ed from Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken and went on to earn a Ph.D. at age twenty-two in electrical engineering. An assistant for a time to Thomas Edison, Kelly became one of the world's foremost experts in using dynamos to transmit telephone signals. During Kelly's lifetime he held over seventy electrical related patents and pioneered high-Vol. 32, 2018 - For aheuge in thine nyns, 0 Liberty: Shines that high light whereby the world is saced; And though thine aley us, ace will trust in ther." JOIN HATE On Picket Duty.

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, these three; but the greatest of these is Liberty.

Formerly the price of Liberty was eternal vigilance, but now it can be had for fifty conta Individuals on becoming adults gain their frendom. Are antions never to attain their unjority P The effect of one-half of our laws is to make criminals; the porpose of the other half is to punish them. Holding monopoly. the banker is the worat enemy of the hunan race, boing its chief despoiter: rithout that monopoly, he in it bent friond, being grentest civilizer.

It is needless to call attention to the style of our send. It was designed by Mr. Ipsch, 18 Post Office Square, Boston, who, catching with artistic insight About Progressive People.

Henry Genrge, the author of " Trugrems and Poverty, la death or h son, Sir Percy Shelley, the poet witt, in common with Byron, have so descendant of his name. Jefferson Davis denies that be ever uttered ur indorsed the sen timent that " slavery is the corner-stone of the Confedericy.- Wendell Phillips is called by the " Boston PopE n the whitebuired instigator of assaseinatino, who preaches anarchy even 1 a literary feast." Mr. Patrick Egan has purchneed the "Dublin Iriabman," E thee placing all the national journals in Ireland under, control of the Land League, Sophie Perovskaya, spirit nt oor purpose, has produced what LIBERTYS MARTYRED, HEROIB. n world's fir in tRheompreo,jecatnodn ianlflmuoensttialdfarielnyds.writes a letter arging every epicure in typogmply must pronounce triumph of genius and a real work of art, remarkulle for its originality, rigor, simplicity, and strange grace Liberty takes pleasure and pride in its ability present to the readers of its lest issue the first athentie likeness published in Amerion of the most famous and heroie of that little Rossino band styled by the Pill Mall Gazette a - army ofarengine angela" SEE IANGED APOt. 18, 1441, For Helping in Rut the Worklef Toront.

Dory tin en /hun high astala die atopl lending they direloal.y stretched to wont the gone wont to soull; THE EN ROT A RECTO TO COD While t wars the Irish World, published in New York, and voltage electricity generating and transmission the Boston Pilot. Both newspapers featured sevsystems. However, he was not just a man of science; he was also devoted to Ireland and used his considerable wealth generously to advance the cause of Irish freedom. In the 1880s, he wrote articles for individualist anarchis publications including Liberty, Alarm, and Lucifer, which must have greatly influenced his sister.

John Kelly spent the last years of his life supporting Irish causes, working closely with his sister. From 1916-18, he served as the president of the Massachusetts State Council for Friends of Irish Freedom. From 1920-21, he wrote a third of the Irish World's anonymous political commentaries, and in 1921, eral stories on the failure of the Irish Land Act of 1870 to improve the lot of tenant farmers, the formation of the Irish Land League in 1879, the subsequent Land Wars, the No-Rent movement, and the indiscriminate evictions of Irish tenant farmers from their land by agents of absentee English landlords. These stories cemented Kelly's rejection of British imperialism and private ownership of land.

In 1879, John Devoy of Clan na Gael in the United States forged a broad-based coalition called the "New Departure," with Michael Davitt of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and Charles Stewart Parnell of the Home Rule League to create ; joint front NEW YORK 1R15H HISTORY returned to San Franciaco.

Mr, Charles Stewart Pornoll has two brothers, one of whom Is a cotton planter in Georgin and a Land Languec, wills the other, who owns an estate in Kilkenny, Ireland, E a etrong Conservative A life-sise martia bast of Gerrit Swilth fuss been presented to the Oneida Histocical Rociety of Utica, the late plillanthropist'% birthplace, by his daughter, Mrs. Elizaheth 8. Matter of Geneva, N. Tr General Garlaidi has accepted the tonorry, presidency w the Cincinnati Unione e Fratelianaa Italiana. is eager for Jefferson Davis in certainly under obligation to Mr. James /'. Derby of Brooklyn, who suggested his bistory and went l Nay Demis, for the hosts D Applaton & No,to sagacitse, e will make out of it 8100,000 A movement i n foot in England to raiso a fund by which Johann Most may be compensated for his imprisonment.

The restimonial de to be presented at a taquet on the dsy the prismier loaves jail. A portrait of Moss Was one of the prizes from July to December, he and his young sister agitated for a nationwide boycott of British goods.

Despite being in America, Kelly still remained keenly interested in events within Ireland. Although she was busy with her medical studies she followed Ireland from articles in New York Irish History page 15 that united believers in physical force, agrarian agitation, and constitutional nationalism to aid the suffering Irish tenant farmer and demand Irish Home Rule from England. Parnell and Davitt were also members of the Irish National Land League. In support of that initiative Fanny and Anna Parnell founded the Ladies Land League in America in 1880 with branches in Hoboken, Jersey City, Newark, and Patterson. Young Gertrude Kelly became an active member of the League and a vocal supporter of a No-Rent Manifesto published by the National Land League in 1881. Kelly?s understanding of individualistic anarchist philosophy was strengthened by the columns of ?Honorius? in the Irish World, an organ of the Irish No-Rent movement. Honorius was, in fact, a pseudonym for the American naturalrights advocate Henry Appleton, who contributed frequently to the early issues of Liberty, both under his own name and under the pen name of ?X.?(McElroy, ?Gertude B. Kelly?) prolific writer and feminist Anger at how British imperialist government had subverted its proper role in Ireland shaped Kelly?s anti-authoritarian worldview. Kelly was not only a dedicated Irish-Nationalist, but she was also a prolific writer and insightful social and political commentator. In articles published in the individualist periodical Liberty and the Irish World she expressed her indignation and abhorrence at the lack of fairness empathy or sense of humanity inherent in the attitude of the ruling elite towards the poor of Ireland. She contributed a number of other well-received articles for Liberty whose founder and editor, Benjamin Tucker, said of her ?Gertrude B. her articles in Liberty, has placed herself at a single bound among the finest writers of this or any other country.? (McElroy, ?Gertrude B. Kelly?) Kelly, however, would later break with Tucker and cease writing for Liberty, a sign of her fiery independence.

Kelly was more than a mere analyst of Irish anti-imperialism. She was also an avantguard feminist who understood the struggles that women faced, especially poor women, with whom the doctor had a lifelong affinity and her articles for Liberty reflect a keen understanding of the special problems females faced.

In one of her articles for Liberty she developed a highly controversial argument about prostitution. Instead of seeing prostitutes as ?fallen women,? Kelly saw them as economic victims. Her first article in Liberty, ?The Root of Prostitution,? claimed that women?s inability to earn enough money through respectable forms of labor was the root cause of sex work. She wrote: We find all sorts of schemes for making men moral and women religious, but no scheme which proposes to give woman the fruits of her labor.

In her writing, she railed against men forcing women to conform to paternalistic codes of behavior.

Men...have always denied to women the opportunity to think; and, if some women have had courage enough to dare Photo: Fanny (Frances) Parnell was born in Co. Wicklow in 1848 and was a founder of the Ladies Land League in the United States. This was an American branch of the Ladies Land League in Ireland which provided support and an alternative administration group for the Irish National Land League. Gertrude Kelly became a vocal and active member of the American organization. Courtesy of History Ireland. Vol. 32, 2018 PAGE 16 NEW YORK TRISH HISTORY public opinion, and insist upon thinking for themselves, they have been so beaten by that most powerful weapon in societys arsenal, ridicule, that it has effectively prevented the great majority from making any attempt to come out of slavery. (McElroy, "Gertrude B. Kelly") Despite Kelly's sincere feminism, she could make the following statement that must have alienated her from many of the leading feminists of her day: "There is, THE S her efforts. She also accepted the popular radical belief that capitalism was an alliance between business and government, in which the state guaranteed the rich their privileged position. Kelly considered all forms of capitalism to be what individualist anarchists called "state capitalism." In Irish-America, where so many fellow immigrants had climbed the ladder by joining the civil service, her anti-government stance was especially incendiary.

YORLD Fol. 111. -No. 29 -Whole No. 134. SATURDAY, MARCH 22, 1873. PRICE FIVE CENTS Photo: Patrick Ford was the influential founder of The Irish World newspaper which was first published in New York in 1870. Gertrude Kelly and her older brother, John, were contributors. The paper strongly supported goals of the Land League in Ireland and established a successful fund to collect money for its activities. Courtesy of John T. Ridge. properly speaking, no woman question, as apart from the question of human right and human liberty." She added: "The woman's cause is man's- -they rise or sink/ Together--dwarfed or god-like-bond or free." She saw women's struggles in the wider context of humanity's struggle against all forms of coercion. Women would gain their deserved social status only when all of society had also liberated itself. Kelly also became a militant suffragette, believing that women with the power to vote could solve many of the issues they faced. (McElroy, "Gertrude B. Kelly") In Kelly's eyes both women and men were in fact the victims of a coercive capitalist society. Radical individualists of nineteenth-century America, like Kelly, saw capitalism as the root cause of poverty and social injustice. Kelly subscribed to the labor theory of value espoused by the anarchist individualist theoretician Josiah Warren who posited that capitalists stole the fruits of labor by underpaying the worker for his or KELLY'S WORK AS A DOCTOR Kelly's becoming a physician is an extraordi-IS nary story in itself. She became one of the very few women to study medicine and become a doctor thanks to two English sisters, Elizabeth and Emily Blackwell who set up the first school to grant women licenses to practice medicine, the Women's Medical College of New York. Kelly graduated from Blackwell's school in 1884 with an M.D. degree and became an accomplished surgeon. If Kelly is recalled today in New York City, it 1s not for her important role in agitating for Ireland, but in helping the city's poor through her work as a doctor, Although she campaigned for many deserving causes during her lifetime, her primary focus was on treating the downtrodden and poor working women and their families in the clinics she worked in. She set up such a clinic in Manhattan's Chelsea neighborhood where she became legendary for surreptitiously leaving cash under her dinner plate when she made house calls at the homes of impoverished patients. Kelly Vol. 32, 2018 TRISH NEW YORK 1R1SH HISTORY PAGE 17 was also a renowned surgeon who, in addition to her work at the clinic, was a member of the surgical staff at the New York Infirmary for Women and Children, the institution where she had received training. During her medical career she authored and co-authored papers on abdominal surgical procedures and other medical and health-care related issues.

KELLY AND THE RISING Kelly would play an oversized role in the events before and after the 1916 Easter Rising. In 1901, John Redmond, who assumed leadership of the reunited Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP), established the United Irish League of America to raise funds for the 1PP and promote its Home Rule agenda in the United States. Dr. Kelly supported the United Irish League, even though its acceptance of continued British sovereignty over Ireland disturbed her. In accepting home rule, she reasoned that it could serve as an intermediary step before launching a nonviolent, anti-British, grassroots campaign that would lead to an independent Irish Republic.

In October of 1914, Kelly issued a call to "women of Irish blood" to join the first chapter of Cumann na mBan formed in the United States. Hundreds of women met at the Hotel McAlpin, where Kelly, Mary Colum, and Sidney Gifford a recently arrived ?migr? from Dublin outlined the aims of the organization. Their chapter would follow the lead of Cumann na mBan in Ireland by raising funds and garnering support for the Irish Volunteers formed in 1913 in response to the formation of the anti-independence Ulster Volunteer Force the previous year. The declared aim of the Irish Volunteers was "to secure and maintain the rights and liberties common to the whole people of Ireland." ("Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly' in Chosen as president of the organization, Kelly helped set-up other branches and arranged for speakers from Ireland to address its members, conduct lecture tours and help in fundraising efforts.

When Redmond in a speech called on young Irishmen to enlist and fight in the British Army, it was too much for the antiimperialist Kelly, who issued the following statement: May I, as a woman, an Irishwoman and physician, spokeswoman of hundred, thousands of my sisters at home and abroad ask our leaders what it is they propose to Ireland to do-commit suicide? Admitting for the moment that this is "a most righteous war" not-"a war of iron and coal"-a war between titans for commercial supremacywhy should little Ireland have to do what the United States, Switzerland, etc., do not. Is Home Rule to be secured for the cattle and sheep when the young men of Ireland are slaughtered, the old men and old women left sonless, the young women obliged to emigrate to bring up sons for men of other climes. ("Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly" in After the Easter Rising, Cumann na mans fundraising efforts were redirected to the support of the thousands of families of imprisoned Volunteers. Kelly and other Irish women activists including Margaret Moore, a Land League veteran and labor leader Lenora Photo: Following Gertrude Kelly's call for women of Irish blood" to join an American auxiliary of Cumann na mBan, hundreds of women met in December, 1914 to create the organization. Kelly selected New Yorks posh Hotel McAlpin as the meeting place. The newly opened hotel was, at that time, the largest hotel in the world and was to become a historic building. Still in existence at Broadway and Thirty-fourth Street, it is currently an apartment complex. Courtesy of Ephemeralnewyork.

Vol. 32, 2018 PAGE 18 NEW YORK 1RISH HISTORY Photo: Women picketing in O'Reilly led the highly successful fundraising campaign.

In 1917, America entered World War I on the side of the British. President Wilson threatened members of any organizations that protested against the British Empire with jail sentences. Nevertheless, in the same year Dr.

Kelly was part of a group that formed the Irish Progressive Party, whose aim was to lobby the government in Washington to protest British imperialism and recognize the Irish Republic.

In 1920, Dr. Kelly would perform her greatest services to Irish freedom. She understood that women could take bold actions, such as in public protests, that would capture popular attention and focus the American public on the continued presence of Britain in Ireland, which violated one of the Fourteen Points identified by Wilson in 1918 as necessay for world peace-self-determination for small nations.

The first official meeting of the activist group, American Women Pickets for the Enforcement of America's War Aims, was held in New York on April 20, 1920, organized by Gertrude Kelly. With Irish men in America mired in fighting one another, this women's movement grabbed headlines through a succession of highly effective public acts, some of which created chain reactions across the eastern seaboard of the United States. In September, 1920, Kelly was one of the organizers of a female blockade of the British Embassy in Washington as response to their actions in Ireland. Kelly was arrested for her part in the agitation.

In December, 1920, the women pickets and the Irish Progressive League organized a strike at a Chelsea pier in Manhattan to protest the arrests of Irish-born Australian Archbishop Daniel Mannix, an outspoken foe of British rule in Ireland, and Terence MacSwiney, the Lord Mayor of Cork, who was on hunger strike and near death. Kelly, Leonora O'Reilly, Hannah Sheehy-Skeffington, and Eileen Curran of the Celtic Players assembled a group of women who dressed in white with green capes and carried signs that read: "There Can Be No Peace While British Militarism Rules the World." ("Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly" in The strike which, lasted three and a half weeks, was directed at British ships docked in New York. Striking workers included not only Irish longshoremen but also, Italian coal passers, African-American longshoremen, and workers on a docked British passenger liner. According to 1920 on behalf of support by the American government for an Irish republicand against use of American arms by Britain to crush the Irish independence movement. Gertrude Kelly was a leader in such actions, and was eventually arrested for her activities. Courtesy of Libnary of Congress.

Vol. 32, 2018 19 th His/petion ICANS: Jr Men ler ugh the sh Republic. for hava's, idmointat,eLdaornc Cathers ericas bd and hitions e used to but puss 31 SlaN 3 U.S. RENATE DEFEATED ARTICLES ACANS! cannot : 11801- Hatre EInSdInis Lincoln soir The duty o Amen aid anyy. pe sbetru=ddlin 1 1 0 example NEW YORK 1R1SH HISTORY PAGE 19 a New York Sun report it was ".....the first purely political strike of workingmen in the history of the United States. The strike became famous and spread to Brooklyn, New Jersey, and Boston. When reporters asked who exactly was behind these protests, Dr. Kelly responded "American women.' ("Gertrude B. Kelly" in Irish Echo) By the end of 1920, many thought the only prospect for an independent Ireland was an acceptance of partition. Dr. Kelly was a fiery opponent of division and expressed her views on Ireland being divided: The thing itself is absolutely unthinkable. We have always been slaves, but unwilling slaves. Now we are subscribing to our slavery. I cannot believe that the Irish people will do this. The whole thing is a fake from start to finish. Summed up would say that after 750 years we have given Sources "American Women's Pickets 1920" ar England moral standing in the world

Photo: Some of the children assembled for opening of the Gertrude B. Kelly Playground in the same neighborhood where she had worked. Named in honor of Kelly and her efforts providing medical care for the poor, it was considered a "model playground." It was constructed on the site of a former school. In the 1850s the land had been donated by private owners to the city's Public School Society. Courtesy of the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation when she has none: it's a tremendous a defeat. ("Gertrude B. Kelly" in Nevertheless, partition did take place, much to Kelly's dismay. Bitterly disappointed, she continued her work treating the poor of the city. In the first quarter of the twentieth century she was on the "must meet" list of every Irish political and literary figure who came to the United States. Kelly passed away on February 16, 1934. The poor of Chelsea mourned her and remembered her acts of kindness. In 1936, Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia named the Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly Playground located in Chelsea west of Ninth Avenue between Sixteenth and Seventeeth Streets in her honor. It was one of five model playgrounds developed in New York City during the mid-1930s. (-Gertrude B. Kelly Playground" in The playground is perhaps the only public tribute to a woman who made an outsized contribution to Irish independence and to the City of New York. Perhaps in the future Dr. Kelly will garner more.

Doyle, Joe. "Striking for Ireland on the New York Docks" in Bayor, Ronald H. & Timothy Meagher, eds., The New York Irish, Johns Hopkins University Press. "Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly (1862-1934)" at "Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly" (obituary) in The Irish World, February 24, 1934. "Gertrude B. Kelly Playground" at "Gertrude B. Kelly" in Wikipedia.

McElroy, Wendy, "Gertrude B. Kelly: A Forgotten Feminist" in The Freeman (copyright 8), Foundation for Economic Education, October 1998. See also Nyhan, Myriam. "Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly and the Founding of Cumann Na Mban" in Nyhan, Miriam, ed., Ireland's Allies: America and the 1916 Easter Rising, University College Dublin Press. "Waterford's Revolutionary Women 1916-1922" at www. exhibit/web/Display. "When New York Stopped for Terence McSweeney," Trish Echo, March 14, 2012. Vol. 32, 2018